Michele Swanson, Gemma Reguera, Moselio Schaechter, ... [et. al.]

2nd ed.

Washington, DC : ASM Press, cop. 2016

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z  

 23 termes

abortive transcription  n.

p. 223

However, yet obscure interaction of RNAP in the open complex prevent it from clearing the promoter right away; as a result, transcription is aborted prematurely and restarted. Such cycles of abortive transcription are widespread among promoters in vivo and delay transcription initiation.

AbrB repressor  n.

p. 376

Without the AbrB repressor, genes coding for proteins needed for sporulation are expressed.

acid-fast cell envelope  n.

p. 42

Some bacteria, notably the tubercle bacillus (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and its relatives, have developed yet another way to protect their cell membranes from environmental challenges, the so-called acid-fast cell envelope.

ACME  n. (arginine catabolic mobile element)

p. 665

Known (somewhat awkwardly) as the arginine catabolic mobile element, or ACME, this xvirgulax30-gene locus has inserted at the same chromosomal site as SCCmec islands.

actin-based motility  n.

p. 680

That means the length of the actin tail is actually dictated by the half-life of the actin filaments in the tail. Actin-based motility does more than delight microbiologists.

acyl carrier protein  n.

p. 246

To avoid this mess, cell rely on specialized protein carriers, the acyl carrier proteins, to engulf the hydrophobic tails and carry them to the polar head.

adaptive mechanism  n.

p. 336

Some of the responses listed in the table are geared to one specific threat (e.g., heat, UV light, or phosphate starvation), while others have roles in multiple challenges and responses (e.g., entry into stationary phase). We tend to refer to the former as stress responses and the latter as adaptive mechanisms, but the two terms overlap, and you will encounter both used interchangeably.

ADP-ribosylase  n.

p. 722

Similar to cholera toxin, the ADP-ribosylase activity of other toxins modifies host factors to commandeer cellular processes.

aid worker  n.

p. 723

Unfortunately, aid workers newly arrived from Nepal, a country suffering its own cholera epidemic, inadvertently shed V. Cholerae O1 into the Haitin waters.

Aigarchaeota  [nom científic]

p. 409

The simple view of Archaea as restricted to two phyla was challenged when the first environmental DNA sequencing studies began to identify sequences corresponding to new, candidate archaeal phyla called the Thaumarchaeota, Aigarchaeota, and Korarchaeota, collectivelly designated, along with the Crenarchaeota, as the TACK superphylum.

alarmone  n.

p. 325

A sensor on the stalled ribosomes (the enzyme RelA) is then activated to convert GTP into ppGpp, a small molecule appropriately called an "alarmone" for its critical role in signaling the cell that it is starving.

alkyl peroxidase  n.

p. 658

Still other virulence factors (staphyloxanthin, catalase, and alkyl peroxidase) protect this pathogen from being killed by reactive oxygen species within the phagosome.

allosteric regulation  n.

p. 313

But, as we will discuss later in the chapter, allosteric regulation is but one of the many ways in which sRNAs coordinate processes in the cell.

amitochondriate protist  n.

p. 442

But was it shed at an early stage in the evolution of eukaryotes to give rise to the amitochondriate protists? As we discuss in this chapter, these "amitochondriate" protists do have mitochondria-like organelles, which may be relics of the ancestral mitochondrion.

ammonia monooxygenase  n.

p. 567

Interestingly, the genes encoding the enzymes (ammonia monooxygenase and hydroxylamine dehydrogenase) that allow some Nitrospira species to oxidize ammonia all the way to nitrate are phylogenetically distinct and thus unique to the comammox microbes.

amplicon-based community fingerprinting  n.

p. 526

Amplicon-based community fingerprinting. Profiling a microbial community typically starts with extracting DNA from the sample to sequence regions encoding specific microbial genes, such as the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) locus.

ancestral mitochondrion  n.

p. 442

Hence, like mitosomes, hydrogenosomes also appear to be remmants of an ancestral mitochondrion.

ancient spore  n.

p. 366

Did the Bacillus culture originate from the germination of ancient spores?

animal reservoir  n.

p. 732

In addition to familiar illnesses, like diarrhea caused by foodborne Salmonella typhimurium or rabies acquired from the bite of an infected bat, alarming new diseases emerge from animal reservoirs, such as the 2012 outbreak of the severe respiratory illness Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).

antibiotic disk inhibition assay  n.

p. 611

Antibiotic disk inhibition assay. The diffusion of antibiotics from paper disks into the solidified medium inhibits the growth of susceptible bacteria grown on the agar surface (in this case, E. coli).

archaellum  n.

p. 47

The archaeal flagellum (also known as the archaellum) is similar to bacterial appendages known as pili, which we discuss in more detail below.

arginine catabolic mobile element  n. (ACME)

p. 665

Known (somewhat awkwardly) as the arginine catabolic mobile element, or ACME, this xvirgulax30-gene locus has inserted at the same chromosomal site as SCCmec islands.

asymmetric development  n.

p. 378

Lastly, we introduce here a multitalented molecule that participates not only in the control of asymmetric development in Caulobacter (Fig. 13,8), but also in many other differentiation pathways.